Table 1

Opportunities and challenges in preclinical and clinical vascular research in the context of multimorbidity

Preclinical researchClinical research
Develop new research conceptsDevelop models of multimorbidity to understand common pathwaysDevelop new clinical trial concepts to include patients with multimorbidity and assess complex outcomes. Inclusion and exclusion criteria should reflect a more real-life population
Utilise existing models to assess comorbiditiesCharacterise existing models that display more than one phenotype to characterise comorbiditiesReport cardiovascular outcomes in trials that are primarily conducted on non-cardiovascular conditions
Utilise models of complex disease for cardiovascular researchUtilise existing models of complex diseases, e.g. inbred strains with complex genetic background, with homology to human diseaseMake use of ‘big data’ e.g. in the form of health record data and studies in primary care populations
Assess cardiovascular phenotypesAssess vascular phenotypes in non-vascular studies and vice versa, assess non-vascular phenotypes in CVD modelsClinical trials should specifically assess vascular phenotypes and cardiovascular outcomes. Non-invasive tools and imaging technology will support this task