Table 1 Liver gene expression analysis
CNTHFDHFD + TRAILHFD compared with CNTHFD + TRAIL compared with CNTHFD compared with HFD + TRAIL
De novo lipogenesis
Fas1.00 ± 0.101.60 ± 0.111.20 ± 0.07<0.01NS<0.05
Srebp1a1.00 ± 0.041.17 ± 0.101.16 ± 0.11NSNSNS
Srebp1c1.00 ± 0.200.70 ± 0.061.17 ± 0.21NSNSNS
Fatty acid oxidation
Aox1.00 ± 0.080.77 ± 0.060.83 ± 0.07NSNSNS
Cpt1a1.00 ± 0.060.51 ± 0.070.55 ± 0.07<0.0001<0.0001NS
Pparα1.00 ± 0.110.75 ± 0.140.85 ± 0.15NSNSNS
Gluconeogenesis, insulin signaling, insulin sensitivity
Irs21.00 ± 0.090.79 ± 0.080.74 ± 0.12NSNSNS
Pepck1.00 ± 0.100.30 ± 0.090.32 ± 0.06<0.0001<0.0001NS
Pparγ1.00 ± 0.101.82 ± 0.212.57 ± 0.20<0.01<0.0001<0.05
Hnf41.00 ± 0.110.99 ± 0.111.07 ± 0.09NSNSNS
Mitochondrial function
Cit synt1.00 ± 0.091.00 ± 0.111.12 ± 0.08NSNSNS
Pgc-1α1.00 ± 0.050.41 ± 0.050.65 ± 0.03<0.0001<0.0001<0.01
Pln51.00 ± 0.210.72 ± 0.070.81 ± 0.08NSNSNS
Ucp21.00 ± 0.110.69 ± 0.070.79 ± 0.11NSNSNS
Sirt-11.00 ± 0.071.06 ± 0.101.03 ± 0.06NSNSNS
Oxidative stress and inflammation
Gp91phox1.00 ± 0.130.83 ± 0.150.86 ± 0.16NSNSNS
Il-61.00 ± 0.181.74 ± 0.141.16 ± 0.10<0.01NS<0.05
Mcp11.00 ± 0.201.95 ± 0.251.99 ± 0.38NSNSNS
Tnfα1.00 ± 0.140.82 ± 0.121.14 ± 0.23NSNSNS
Autophagy
Atg71.00 ± 0.061.33 ± 0.121.53 ± 0.11<0.05<0.01NS
  • Fas, Srebp1a, and Srebp1c are transcription factors and enzymes involved in lipogenesis. Acyl-CoA oxidase (Aox), Cpt1a, and Pparα are transcription factors and enzymes involved in fatty acid oxidation. Irs2 regulates insulin signaling; Pepck regulates gluconeogenesis; Pparγ sensitizes to insulin. Hnf4 is a transcriptional regulator of gluconeogenic genes. Citrate synthase (Cit synt), which is the pace-making enzyme of Krebs cycle, and Ucp2 are localized in mitochondria, while Pgc-1α, perilipin 5 (Pln5), and sirtuin-1 (Sirt-1) regulate mitochondrial functions. Gp91phox is a subunit of NADPH oxidase, which is involved in oxidative stress, Il-6, Mcp1, and Tnfα are proinflammatory mediators. Atg7 is a molecule involved in autophagy.

  • NS: not significant