Table 2 Critical serum biological biomarkers of THS exposure over time*
Early stage (≥1 month)Middle stage (≥2 months)Late stage (≥4 months)Very late stage (≥6 months)
GM-CSFACTHFasting blood glucoseCRH
TNF-αUreaInsulin
EpinephrinePOMCIL-6
ASTIL-1α, IL-4, IL10Cortisol
  • * Each column presents biological biomarkers that first appear at the labeled stage. In addition, each stage displays all of the markers in the previous stage(s).