Table 1 Biomarkers examined to test the damage caused by THS exposure over time
BiomarkersDetecting material
Fasting blood glucoseSerum
InsulinSerum
CRHSerum
ACTHSerum
EpinephrineSerum
CortisolSerum
POMCSerum
DopamineSerum
IL-1αSerum
IL-4Serum
IL-6Serum
IL-10Serum
GM-CSFSerum
TNF-αSerum
Aspartate aminotransferase (AST)Serum
UreaSerum
H2O2Liver; brain
SODLiver; brain
CatalaseLiver; brain
GPxLiver; brain
NitrotyrosineLiver; brain
Lipid peroxidationLiver; brain
DNA damageLiver; brain
ATPLiver; brain
LactateLiver; brain
NRFLiver
POMCBrain
  • Fifteen biomarkers were tested in serum, nine biomarkers were tested in liver and brain tissue.