Table 2 Summary of non-genomic effects of androgens on vascular tissue
AndrogenCell/TissueEffectReference
TestosteroneMurine macrophages↑ Intracellular calcium
↑ PLC
Activation RAS/MEK/ERK MAPK pathways
Wunderlich et al. (2002)
[75]
Foradori et al. (2008)
[39]
TestosteroneCardiac myocytes↑ Release Ca2+ from endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondriaBennett et al. (2010)
[41]
Foradori et al. (2008)
[39]
TestosteroneMale rat osteoblasts↑ Cytosolic free calcium
↑ IP3 and DAG formation
Lieberherr et al. (1994)
[74]
TestosteroneAECRapid ↑ NO
eNOS phosphorylation
PI3K, cavceolin-1 and c-Src binding to AR
AKT phosphorylation
Son et al. (2010)
[49]
Yu et al. (2010)
[79]
TestosteroneVSMCInhibits PGF2α induced Ca2+ influxMa et al. (2009)
[81]
TestosteroneFingertip arterial pulse↓ Arterial stiffness
Acute vasodilation
Francomano et al. (2016)
[82]
TestosteroneProstate cancer cellsTRPM-8 induced ↑ intracellular Ca2+Zhang et al. (2004)
[89]
Synthetic R1881
Testosterone
HEK-293 cells transfected with GPRC6A↑ ERK activityPi et al. (2010)
[128]
TestosteroneVSMC ratsROS generation
↑ Nox1 and Nox4 mRNA
↑p47phox protein
VSMC migration
Chignalia et al. (2012)
[129]
TestosteroneEpidermal keratinocytesRapid Ca2+ mobilization from endoplasmic reticulum
↑ H2O2 generation
↓ Mitochondrial membrane potential
↓ Apoptosis
↑ Duox1 stimulation
ROS generation
Ko et al. (2014)
[96]
Testosterone93RS2 Sertoli cellsERK1/2 phosphorylation
CREB phosphorylation
ATF-1 phosphorylation
Bulldan et al. (2016)
[86]
TestosteroneProstate and breast cancer cell linesActivation of G proteins
Up-regulation JNK gene expression
ERK phosphorylation
↑ Pro-apoptotic Bax, caspase 3, cytochrome c proteins
Apoptosis
Thomas et al. (2014)
[87]
TestosteroneVSMCMitochondrial ROS generation
Procaspase-8 and -3 activation
↓ O2 consumption
Apoptosis
Lopes et al. (2014)
[14]