Dysregulation of miRNA expression has been associated with many cardiovascular diseases in animal models, as well as in patients. In the present review, we summarize recent findings on the role of miRNAs in cardiovascular diseases and discuss the opportunities, possibilities and challenges of using miRNAs as future therapeutic targets. Furthermore, we focus on the different approaches that can be used to deliver these newly developed miRNA therapeutics to their sites of action. Since siRNAs are structurally homologous with the miRNA therapeutics, important lessons learned from siRNA delivery strategies are discussed that might be applicable to targeted delivery of miRNA therapeutics, thereby reducing costs and potential side effects, and improving efficacy.
- cardiovascular disease
- targeted delivery method
Abbreviations: ApoB, apolipoprotein B; AAV, adeno-associated virus; EC, endothelial cell, i.v., intravenous; JNK1, c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1; LNA, locked nucleic acid; MB, microbubble; PEI, polyethylenimine; PLGA, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid); PLL, poly-L-lysine; RISC, RNA-induced silencing complex; SHP-1, Src homology 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-1; TLR, Toll-like receptor; US, ultrasound
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