Clinical Science

Research article

Respiratory-related arterial pressure variability as an indicator of graded blood loss: involvement of the autonomic nervous system

Hsien Yong LAI, Cheryl C. H. YANG, Fan-Yen HUANG, Yi LEE, Yu Ling KUO, Terry B. J. KUO


During positive pressure mechanical ventilation, percentile systolic pressure variation (%SPV) or respiratory-related arterial pressure variability (RAPV) have both been used in assessment of graded haemorrhage. We aimed to investigate whether changes in %SPV and RAPV are correlated during graded haemorrhage (by 5, 10 or 20% of the estimated blood volume) in anaesthetized positive pressure ventilated rats and to investigate the involvement of autonomic regulation. Saline vehicle or atropine produced no discernible effect on baseline %SPV or RAPV but, thereafter, %SPV and RAPV increased progressively with graded haemorrhage. Propranolol significantly decreased baseline %SPV and RAPV and changes induced in %SPV and RAPV by graded haemorrhage. Phentolamine significantly enhanced baseline %SPV and RAPV, and further enhancement of %SPV and RAPV by graded haemorrhage did not occur until 20% of the estimated blood volume was removed. RAPV was significantly correlated with %SPV in all experimental groups. We conclude that RAPV is comparable with%SPV as an indicator of graded haemorrhage and that, in anaesthetized and positive pressure ventilated rats, both are dependent on autonomic function, especially β-adrenoceptors.

  • blood volume
  • frequency domain
  • power spectral analysis
  • sympathetic activity
  • systolic pressure variation